Rules for the design of articles and references

Rules for the design of articles and references


for the design of articles and references

1. Structure of the article

The article should contain the following elements.

1.1. UDC index. It can be determined on the following websites /,,

1.2. Rank for the clergy (in full), initials and surname of the author(s). for example: I. I. Ivanov, archpriest S. I. Petrov, priest I. A. Kuzmin, hieromonk Victor (Popov). All initials in the article, in the references, in footnotes are connected to the surname using an unbroken space by simultaneously pressing Shift+Ctrl+Space, e.g. J. J Smith.

1.3. The title of the article using uppercase and lowercase letters, in bold, centered alignment.

1.4. The following are the abstract, key words, information about the author(s), indication for correct citation.

Abstract: The abstract outlines the goals, methods and results of the work, highlights new and important aspects of the research. (The article is devoted to… / The article discusses … / analyzes … / The purpose of the article is … . /The author indicates… . / Based on… , the author … reasonably proves… . / In conclusion, it is inferred …).

Key words: 5-10 words (phrases).

Information about the author(s): full name, surname, ordination (if any), academic title, academic degree, position, place of work/ study of the author(s) (Country, City). E-mail address (E-mail: ).

For student papers, after the full name of the author(s), the full name of the scientific supervisor, ordination (if any), academic title, academic degree, position, place of work (Country, City) is indicated. E-mail address (E-mail: ).

Citation: Surname+Initials. Name of the article // Bulletin of the Orenburg Theological Seminary. 2023. Issue 00. pp. 000-000 (zeros should be left to indicate the journal number and page numbers).

1.5. The main text of the article.

The article should contain:


Preface to the subject, emphasizing the relevance of the topic;

A detailed description of the problem that the article is devoted to and/or the purpose of writing the article.

— Research methods.

— A review of the works on the problem under study.


— The main problematic provisions, examples, your own reasoning.


Conclusion containing significant findings related to the purpose/ problem of writing the article.


Thanks are expressed to colleagues who assisted in the implementation of the study or made critical comments about your article, but who are not the direct authors of the article.

SOURCE OF FINANCING (if available)

The sources of financing (grants, joint projects, etc.) are indicated.

1.6. References are placed at the end of the article (see paragraph 3 below).

1.7. To clarify certain points that are indirectly related to the main content of the article, footnotes can be used (not to be confused with references to sources and literature). Footnotes should be numbered end-to-end throughout the article, they should be set automatically and placed at the bottom of the page. The text of the footnote should be brief. Manuscripts with endnotes are not accepted.

1.8. After the article in English, the following data is provided: rank, first and last name / first name, patronymic, last name of the author(s), title of the article, abstract, key words and a list of sources and literature in English (References). References repeat all sources and literature, but not designed according to the requirements of all-Union State Standard, but according to international rules (Web of Science, Scopus).

2. Requirements for the design of the article

2.1. The author submits the final author’s version of the manuscript in electronic form. The electronic version of the manuscript is executed in a Microsoft Word text editor and saved with the extension “.doc” or “.rtf” (the “.docx” format is undesirable, since when opening files of this format in early versions of Microsoft Word, words “stick together”). The last name and initials of the author are indicated in the file name, then underlining, the city, the first 2-3 words of the title of the article (SmithJJ_Washington_Churches of America).

2.2. The article should be proofread for the accuracy of terminology and compliance with the norms of the English language.

2.3. The Editorial Board does not enter into correspondence regarding rejected articles.

2.4. Parameters of the computer set of the article: A4 format; margins of 2 cm on all sides; typeface – Times New Roman; size – 14; line spacing – 1.5; width alignment; paragraph indentation 1.25, page numbering is not set, orientation – book; without hyphenation.

2.5. The recommended volume of the manuscript is from 20,000 to 40,000 characters (with spaces). Exceeding the volume and incorrect design may serve as a reason for rejecting the article.

2.6 In the text of the article, a reference is placed in square brackets to the ordinal number of the source or literature in the list and the number or interval of pages (for printed works): [1], [1, p. 28], [1, pp. 28-37].

2.7. The absence of pages inside square brackets implies a reference to the publication as a whole. The presence of several links with one phrase is made out by specifying them within the same square brackets, the link numbers are separated from each other by a semicolon (;) and a space. For example: [6; 12], [6, p. 45; 12, p. 65] [5, p. 3; 6; 9].

2.8. If there are texts in ancient languages, it is recommended to use Unicode fonts. For the Greek language, the Palatino Linotype font. When using other fonts for ancient languages, they should be sent in a separate file along with the text of the article. When using texts in Semitic languages, keep the writing direction from right to left.

2.9. Quotation marks when quoting are only “…”. For nested citations, the quotation marks ‘’ are used: “A quote, and inside it is a ‘nested quote’”.

2.10. When typing an article, it is necessary to distinguish between the spelling mark hyphen “-” and the punctuation mark dash “–”.

2.11. All abbreviations must be fully deciphered at the first use.

2.12. Only abbreviations are allowed: etc., i.e. 

2.13. Years, when specifying a certain period, are indicated in numbers: the 20s, (and not … the twenties).

2.14. The letter “ё” must be used in the Russian text if you have it. You can check its placement with a special service. For example,

2.15. Illustrations (photos, pictures) and tables (if available) are placed in the text in accordance with the text of the article and are also sent as separate files: illustrations — *.jpg, *.tif with a resolution of at least 150 dpi with appropriate printing sizes, tables – *pdf. References to pictures and tables in the text of the article are required: (Table 1. The name of the table), (Picture 1. The name of the picture).

3. Design of the references: if the article is in English then the references are provided in it.

3.1. At the end of each article, a list of all sources and literature used or cited in the article should be placed in alphabetical order. The Russian list of sources and literature used is drawn up in accordance with GOST standart Р 7.0.5-2008.

3.2. The bibliographic record is compiled once, but it can be referred to repeatedly in the text. At the same time, the pages may change.

3.3. When specifying the source of a quotation and referring to any materials used, it is necessary to separate the sources themselves and the works of other scientists (literature).

3.4. Sources may include: monuments of church content, archival materials, collections of manuscripts, letters, works of art, films, video. Literature includes bibliographic records of documents cited, mentioned and studied by the author. The literature shows the source base of the conducted research, allows documenting and substantiating the reliability and accuracy of the provisions, facts, quotations and other information provided in the text of the article, borrowed from various sources. The numbering of the list of sources and literature is continuous, first the works are placed in Cyrillic, then in Latin, then in other languages.

3.5. The Holy Scriptures (the Bible) are not included in the bibliographic list. References to the generally accepted text of the Bible are given in the text in parentheses according to the rules of the Publishing Council of the Russian Orthodox Church. A full stop is placed after the abbreviated title of the book, followed by the chapter and verses. After specifying the chapter, a colon is placed. For example:

(Mat. 1:1-5) – The Gospel of Matthew, chapter 1, verses 1-5.

(Mat. 1:5) – The Gospel of Matthew, chapter 1, verse 5.

3.6. In the matter of writing church vocabulary in Russian, authors should adhere to the rules of the Russian language and the recommendations of the Publishing Council of the Russian Orthodox Church. See: Redakcionno-izdatel’skoe oformlenie cerkovnyh pechatnyh izdanij : spravochnik avtora i izdatelja [Editorial and publishing design of church publications: handbook of the author and publisher]. Moscow, 2015. pp. 119-151. The publication is available on URL:

3.7. Examples of the bibliographic description are presented below.

1. Cassian (Bezobrazov), bishop. By water and blood and spirit: an interpretation on the Gospel of John. Paris: Bibliotheque slave de Paris, 1996, 252 p.

2. Steinberg O. M. Evrejskij i haldejskij jetimologicheskij slovar’ k knigam Vethogo Zaveta [Jewish and Chaldean etymological dictionary of the books of the Old Testament]. Vilna, 1878. 292 p. In Russian.

3. Discoveries in the Judaean Desert (DJD). V. 4 ed. by J. A. Sanders. The Psalms Scroll of Qumrân Cave 11 (11QPsa). Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1965. 99 p. In English.

4. «Christian Spirituality: Origins to the Twelfth Century,» ed., with Bernard McGinn, World Spirituality, v. 16. New York: Crossroad, 1985.

5. Meyendorff, John (1983). Catholicity and the Church. Crestwood, NY: St. Vladimir’s Seminary Press.

3.8. The bibliographic record should contain the main elements that make it easy to identify the source. It is not necessary to overload the bibliographic record with the elements necessary for electronic and card catalogues of libraries.

For book publications, this is the author(s), title, place (city), separated by a colon on both sides by indivisible spaces ( : )  publisher and year of publication, pages. The publishing organization (publisher) is indicated if it is necessary to select this particular edition from other reprints.

For articles from collections – the author(s) of the article, the title of the article. The title of the source (collection), if necessary – subtitle data (indication of the conference, type of publication, etc.), its output data (place and year) and necessarily – the exact parameters of the pages.

For articles from journals – the author(s) of the article, the title of the article. The title of the journal. Year. Number. Pages. For example: Arion. 1997. No. 4. pp. 5-9.

For newspaper articles – the author(s), the title of the article. The title of the newspaper. Year. Date (for weeklies – number). The place of publication is indicated if the newspaper is little known or has a typical title. For example: Leningradsky Prospekt. Arkhangelsk, 2009. January 25.

For dissertations and abstracts – indicate the author, title, after the sign : type of publication (dissertation of the candidate of Historical Sciences; dissertation of the Doctor of Philosophical Sciences; abstract of the dissertation of the candidate of Historical Sciences; abstract of the dissertation of the Doctor of Philosophical Sciences, etc.). Place of publication, year. The number of pages.

For illustrations that are the source of the publication, it is necessary to indicate the author, the title of the illustration and its location. The title of the illustration may be original (author’s) or compiled by the publisher, in the latter case, the compiled title is enclosed in square brackets. The location can be a museum, gallery, archival funds, personal collection, etc., as well as a printed publication, which is described according to generally accepted rules. 

Examples of short-form bibliographic records (the most frequent):

1. Golubinsky E. E. The history of the canonization of saints in the Russian Church. Moscow, 1998, p. 98.

2. The history of the Soviet state, 1917-1935. Moscow, 2006, 433 p.

3. Kutepov V. I., Vinogradova A. G. The Art of the Middle Ages. St. Petersburg, 1999, 315 p.

4. Makarii (Veretennikov), Archim. Metropolitan Ephraim of Kiev (1055-1061). Alpha and Omega. 2007. No. 2 (61). 196 p.

5. Makariy (Veretennikov), Archim. St. Macarius, Metropolitan of Moscow, and the bishops of his time. Moscow, 2007. 234 p.

6. Petrov S. G. Verkhotursky Nikolaevsky Monastery in 1923 (according to the documents of the office of Patriarch Tikhon). Orthodoxy in the fate of the Urals and Russia: history and modernity : materials of the All-Russian Scientific and Practical Conference (Yekaterinburg, April 18-20, 2010). Yekaterinburg, 2010. pp. 90-96.

7. Shashkov A. T. Siberian Metropolitan Ignatius and the “case” of Joseph Astomen. Power, law and the people in the Urals in the era of feudalism: collection of scientific works. Sverdlovsk, 1991. pp. 36-49.

Two or three authors

Varlamova L. I., Bayun L. S., Bastrikova K. A. Documentation management: English-Russian annotated dictionary. Moscow, 2017. 398 p.

Four or more authors

The hierarchy of the Russian Orthodox Church, the Patriarchate and the state in the revolutionary era / V. M. Lavrov [et al.]. Moscow, 2008. 375 p.

A publication that does not have an individual author

Demographic Yearbook of Russia. Moscow : Goskomstat of Russia, 1996. 557 p. [Electronic resource]. Mode of access: /].

3.9. When using scanned versions of paper books that have not been translated into text format (i.e., when viewing electronic images of a paper book), a link to an online resource where you can download the book is optional.

3.10. When describing Internet resources, the specified information is not available to the author in printed form. The Internet link is designed as follows:

Author. The name of the material [Electronic resource]. Mode of access: http://detailed_Internet-address (accessed

The http address is given without underscores. For example:

Description of the text material on a certain site:

Theoktist, Jerome. Sermon on the Akathist to the Intercession of the Most Holy Theotokos. [Electronic resource]. Mode of access: (accessed 07.02.2009).

The entire description of the site

The website of the Moscow Theological Academy. [Electronic resource]. Mode of access: (accessed 07.02.2009).

Description of the video on the Internet channel

Famine in the Volga region 1921-1922. The history of the food disaster in Russia. The theory of hunger. [Electronic resource]. Mode of access: http:// (accessed 26.11.2022).

Unpublished materials of the private archive

Interview of I. M. Dubovitskaya with the head of the brigade of artists of the Dolial icon painting workshop A. N. Bogatkin from 20.10.2022. Private archive of I. M. Dubovitskaya.

3.11. Archival sources are formatted as follows: Document name. Archive name (the generally accepted abbreviated name of the archive). Foundation. List. Document. Page and the turn of the page are indicated in the text of the work in square brackets, for example:

1. Clerical bulletin of the Holy Trinity Church. United State Archive of the Orenburg Region. Foundation 198. List 5. Doc. 62.

In the text – [1, p. 35]

• Letter of Metropolitan Arkady (Fedorov) to Ivanova I. I. dated March 21, 1845. State Archive of the Perm Territory. Foundation 3. List 5. Doc. 63. P. In the text — [2, p. 1-1 turn of the page, p. 35, pp. 36-39].